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I have a couple questions about the facial feature differences between the sexes and why those come to be. There seem to be some facial features that only men have.

1) Do women ever get those big square chins and jaws? Obviously there are women with square faces and some with square jaws like Angie Harmon. A square face is not inherently masculine. But I've never seen a woman with a chin/jaw like Kurt Cobain or Jay Leno.

2) do all men have a brow ridge? I've never seen a woman that had one or a man that didn't have one, that I've noticed. Some are very prominent and others are less noticeable but still there.

As a lay person my research has just told me the difference boils down to testosterone but it must be more than that right? Women do not sprout these features from taking testosterone. Even the ones that were doped up for most of their lives like the DDR wrestlers.

Lastly, what causes these features to develop and is there anything that can hinder the development of these features in men? Or to the contrary cause these features to manifest in women?

I have a couple questions about the facial feature differences between the sexes and why those come to be. There seem to be some facial features that only men have. 1) Do women ever get those big square chins and jaws? Obviously there are women with square faces and some with square jaws like Angie Harmon. A square face is not inherently masculine. But I've never seen a woman with a chin/jaw like Kurt Cobain or Jay Leno. 2) do all men have a brow ridge? I've never seen a woman that had one or a man that didn't have one, that I've noticed. Some are very prominent and others are less noticeable but still there. As a lay person my research has just told me the difference boils down to testosterone but it must be more than that right? Women do not sprout these features from taking testosterone. Even the ones that were doped up for most of their lives like the DDR wrestlers. Lastly, what causes these features to develop and is there anything that can hinder the development of these features in men? Or to the contrary cause these features to manifest in women?

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[–] ProxyMusic 4 points Edited

As a lay person my research has just told me the difference boils down to testosterone but it must be more than that right? Women do not sprout these features from taking testosterone. Even the ones that were doped up for most of their lives like the DDR wrestlers.

The idea that gonadal sex hormones are responsible for most physical differences between the two human sexes was in vogue for most of the 20th century, and shaped a lot of research - because sex hormones are easy to measure and manipulate. But over the past 30 years or since so much detailed study of cells including stem cells and genetics has become possible and more and more of this kind of inquiry has been done, it's become clear that many physical sex difference are due to genes and sex chromosomes rather than just sex hormones - or are not the result of sex hormones at all.

One of the reasons that women doped from girlhood like female athletes in the DDR don't develop certain male characteristics in, for example, skull and facial structure is that male and females have different androgen receptors or ARs. Though research in this area is still in early stages, research on other animals like mice show that the ARs in the two sexes are different in number, kind, location, function and genetic expression. So in other words, not all cells/organs/parts of female bodies respond to testosterone and other androgens the same way that the same or analogous cells/organs/parts of male bodies do.