This kid's convictions must be flimsy if they can't come up with arguments. For things I'm passionate about I can defend them no problem.

I don't think that's what the kid was asking. They seem pretty clear on their argument, just asking how to frame it in a way that doesn't sound hostile. I actually really respect that -- it shows a maturity that indicates they'll likely grow out of they/them nonsense one day.

I can't respect the kid because of the attitude that the teacher needs "correcting". In fact, this terrifies me.

I wouldn't read too much into the word choice. Sometimes teachers are, in fact, wrong and do need correcting (not politically, but when they're teaching something false). The fact that the student happens to be the incorrect one here doesn't mean there's anything wrong with the concept of correcting a teacher.